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[e-med] Progrès dans la réduction de la mortalité maternelle et infantile (Lancet)

Pour ceux qui sont intéressés, la Lettre d'information  francophone sur la 
santé maternelle de mai 2014 est disponible ici : 
Elle est rédigée par la Communauté de pratique des ressources humaines en santé 
maternelle, néonatale et infantile. CB)

Progrès dans la réduction de la mortalité maternelle et infantile

Deux nouvelles études ont été publiées le 2 mai 2014 par The Lancet
évaluant les progrès des points 4 et 5 des Objectifs de développement du
Millénaire de l¹ONU portant sur l'abaissement des taux de mortalité
maternelle et infantile dans les pays en développement.


Progress in reducing child & maternal mortality

Two new studies published today by The Lancet look at the progress of UN
Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 on lowering child and maternal death
rates in developing countries.

These are the first papers in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD
2013), a systematic effort to describe the global distribution and causes
of a wide array of major diseases, injuries, and health risk factors.


Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant and under-5
mortality 1990-2013: a systematic analysis
Key findings:
Between 1970 and 2013, there was a significant reduction in under-5
mortality rates, albeit with significant regional variations

* Between 1970 and 2013, there was a 64.3% reduction in global under-5
* However, regional variations continue to occur. Child deaths are as a
high as 152.5 per 1000 in Guinea-Bissau versus 2.3 per 1000 in Singapore
in 2013.
* Rates of child death have reduced faster from 2000 to 2013 - compared to
the decade from 1990 - in 99 of 188 countries.
* Some of these reductions in child mortality rates can be attributed to
rising income per capita and maternal education.


Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality,
1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study

Key findings: 
The global maternal death rate fell between 1990 and 2013, though some
regions saw increases during the same period

* The global number of maternal deaths per annum fell from 376,000 in 1990
to 293,000 in 2013.
* However, there were regional variations in the rate of progress. South,
East and Southeast Asia showed consistent decreases in death rates,
whereas maternal deaths actually increased in much of sub-Saharan Africa
during the 1990s. 
* Maternal mortality rates were highest in the South Sudan and the lowest
in Iceland. 
* Causes of death also varied widely by region. They included a
combination of medical complications of pregnancy (other direct causes),
haemorrhage, and abortion in lower income regions. Deaths from
haemorrhage, sepsis, obstructed labor and hypertension have decreased
dramatically since 1990.

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