On 16 May 1998, Brian Pazvakavambwa wrote:
> Temephos (1)
> I searched the internet (using the InfoSeek search engine) for sites
> with references to Temephos and got 34 sites. I could not find any
> reference to restriction on the use
The following articles discuss the use of Temephos for malaria fighting and
other diseases. Take a look at:
for more detailed information.
1. The following is extracted from
By September 1995, all countries with endemic disease were implementing the
"case-containment" strategy (6,7) in which village-based health workers
(VBHWs) attempt to detect each person with an infection and initiate
control measures within 24
hours of emergence of the worm. As of July 1995, workers in approximately
80% of villages with known endemic disease had been trained and provided
with resources for implementing this strategy, compared with 52% in
December 1994. From January through September 1995, approximately 33% of
reported cases had been contained, although the criteria used to measure
such containment varied among the countries. In addition, trained VBHWs are
present in approximately 90% of villages with endemic disease. Except in
Sudan, most villages with endemic disease provide monthly reports of cases
of dracunculiasis. Because Abate[Registered]* (temephos) is not suitable
for use in all affected villages, only approximately 15% of villages with
endemic disease are using this intervention for vector control.
Reported by: Global 2000, The Carter Center, Atlanta. Dracunculiasis
Eradication Unit, Div of Control of Tropical
Diseases, World Health Organization. World Health Organization
Collaborating Center for Research, Training, and
Eradication of Dracunculiasis, Div of Parasitic Diseases, National
Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC.
2. The following is an extract from a different source:
Larvicides used, but not recommended here, against Anopheles include
arsenicals (e.g., Paris Green), DDT, dieldrin, chlorpyrifos, malathion,
methyl- and ethyl parathion, pirimiphos methyl and temephos. Because of
their potentially harmful effects on the non-target fauna larviciding with
these chemicals should, in general, not be carried out where populations of
non-target organisms may be adversely affected. The use of Bacillus
thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i.) and other organisms, in particular fish,
and environmental management to reduce mosquito breeding are usually more
appropriate options. In many ethnic communities, different plant species
are traditionally used for their mosquito repellent or larvicidal
properties. In view of the rapidly declining diversity of plants and other
organisms on the Earth, there is an urgent need to scientifically
investigate the properties of various plants, particularly concerning their
potentially arthropod-repellent, pharmacological and other potentially
3. From the PANUPS discussion group, and article from Pesticide Action
Network titled " Mexico Plans DDT Phaseout", 29 Jul 1996
The Mexican government plans to phase out DDT in malaria control over the
next 10 years in favor of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach,
according to Mexican officials speaking at a recent international meeting
in Manila on
persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Mr. Ruben Sanchez, a representative
of Mexico's Ministry of Health, stated that the Mexican government is
prioritizing reducing organochlorine pesticides including DDT because of
concerns about persistence and bioaccumulation. This policy follows a 1990
decision that eliminated all uses except for anti-malaria campaigns. Since
1990, Mexico has used approximately 3000 tons of DDT per year in these
.... some more stuff deleted ....
Officials intend to reduce DDT use by 80% of volume by 2001 and to
eliminate its use by 2006. The World Health Organization still prescribes
DDT for malaria control, but
participants at a recent meeting of health experts from Canada, Mexico,
U.S. and the Pan American Health Organization recommended that Mexico's
malaria control program should now focus on finding alternatives to DDT.
Malaria was among the top ten causes of death in Mexico in the 1950s, but
there have been no deaths attributed to the disease since 1982, according
to Mr. Sanchez.
In order to reduce reliance on DDT, the Mexican government will improve
efforts to treat people infected with the disease, monitor changes in the
quantity and location of malaria cases and eliminate breeding sites through
drainage and other methods. In addition, anti-malaria campaigns will use
other insecticides such as malathion, temephos, bendiocarb and fenitrothion.
[Seems to be contradiction from earlier articles suggesting temephos should
not be use? B.P. Mod]
....rest deleted as discussing use of DDT ....
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Christopher L. Byrne
International Development Network
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